STEPPS therapy

STEPPS therapy offers a structured and skills-based approach to help individuals with BPD manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Understanding STEPPS Therapy

STEPPS therapy is a  group-based intervention developed by Nancee Blum and Don St. John for individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder. Drawing from principles of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT), and psychoeducation, STEPPS aims to provide individuals with practical skills and strategies to manage their emotions, behaviours, and interpersonal relationships effectively.

Key Components of STEPPS Therapy

STEPPS therapy consists of several core components designed to address the core features of BPD:

  1. Psychoeducation: Participants receive comprehensive education about the symptoms, causes, and course of Borderline Personality Disorder. Psychoeducation helps individuals gain insight into their condition, reduce stigma, and understand the rationale behind the therapeutic interventions.
  2. Cognitive-Behavioural Techniques: STEPPS incorporates cognitive restructuring and behavioural activation techniques to challenge maladaptive thought patterns and promote healthier coping behaviours. Participants learn to identify and challenge cognitive distortions, such as black-and-white thinking or catastrophizing, and replace them with more adaptive alternatives.
  3. Emotion Regulation Skills: Given the emotional dysregulation central to BPD, STEPPS teaches participants practical skills to identify, tolerate, and modulate intense emotions. Techniques such as mindfulness, distress tolerance, and emotion modulation empower individuals to manage emotional crises more effectively and reduce impulsive behaviours.
  4. Interpersonal Effectiveness Training: BPD often manifests in tumultuous and unstable relationships. STEPPS therapy equips participants with communication skills, assertiveness training, and conflict resolution strategies to navigate interpersonal challenges more skillfully and build healthier relationships.
  5. Relapse Prevention: STEPPS emphasizes the importance of ongoing self-monitoring and relapse prevention planning to maintain gains achieved during therapy. Participants learn to identify early warning signs of relapse, implement coping strategies, and seek support when needed to prevent setbacks.


Research suggests that STEPPS therapy can lead to significant improvements in BPD symptoms, including reductions in emotional dysregulation, impulsivity, and interpersonal difficulties. Moreover, STEPPS has been associated with enhanced social functioning, increased treatment engagement, and reduced rates of hospitalization and self-harm among individuals with BPD.